A. Lotto, La deportazione femminile
La deportazione femminile nella storiografia tedesca, di Adriana Lotto
After the silence of the 1950s, later interpreted as “the amnesia of a guilty generation”, at the end of the 1960s, on the basis of different reminders, Germany tried to recover its historical past setting the Third Reich as a privileged subject matter for research. Based on the prisoners’ memory and on preserved documents, a large literature has been created about the concentration camps, about the prisoners’ living conditions and their resistance against the annihilation system. The use of the neutral word Häftlinge, however, erases the differences of gender with reference to violence and the mechanisms that produce it. Between the 1970s and 80s, research was published by women concerning the active resistance of women against Nazism. But in these studies too, the pain and the death of many other ordinary women remained untold. Then the position of women during Nazism was studied, and the focus was concentrated on women who were not imprisoned, so that all women were considered victims of a men-dominated policy, a tract that had existed not only during Nazism but also in the previous period. On the other hand, different research was devoted to female collaborationism and activism so that the history of Nazism was stated, by the historical feminists, as a female negative identity. Only in the 1990s did the contact between memories and historical research fully succeed in illustrating the destructive culture of Nazism, introducing a complementary vision given from the perspective of women survivors. According to this point of view, the studies about the female concentration camps started to ask what it had meant to be imprisoned as women. That did not mean to belittle the problem of the camps, but to respond, in an articulate way, to the “total” image of them, which was given. In recent years, research has privileged the biographies of the survivors with particular reference to the period of the liberation, the following years and nationality.
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