Notes to the database entries:

1. Fundamental principles for the structuring of the database:

The purpose of the database MedItaNunC is to provide an usable and easy-to-interrogate corpus of all known people associated with the five monasteries whose data it includes. The database is built on two pillars: the prosopographical data of people, and the monastery-based data. Ideally, they should recoup each other, so that one can access all names from either departure point. All names are clickable on, and cross-referenced across the whole database every time they appear, with all the information available for each person from whatever point of access.

1. The prosopographical data.

This includes the names, status, extended family and relations, economic transactions involving the person concerned, and any other data such as association of the person with relics or artefacts, for

  • All nuns and abbesses
  • All other people who have some association with the monastery, whether through involvement in economic transactions, political activity, family groups, gifts and any other form of connection.

    The large category of ‘Nuns’ is further subdivided into ‘Nuns without relations’, ie names of nuns which appear in the sources once, and have no means of further identification, and ‘Nuns with relations’, including all others of whom anything more than the name is known.

    The category of ‘External People’ includes every person with a connection to the monastery, directly or indirectly documented. At this point in the work, such entries refer to anyone, from a person leasing a piece of land from the monastery to rulers (imperial, royal, ducal, local), BUT ONLY in the context of that specific relationship or transaction. This explains the presence of rulers such as Charlemagne or Alberic mentioned in the context and with the dates as they arise from the current sources, rather than including a complete history of this person’s known activities. For that reason, a limit has been set to the number of people included, for example in the Liber Vita of Brescia, where among the names mentioned as part of the commemorative entries, have been included those of some importance, for example the bishops of Brescia, but not all others, such as the names of all the cathedral clergy individually recorded.

2. The monastery data

The information is divided into areas which are all accessible through clicking on the title. It is divided into the list of nuns, the entries in necrologies, the transactions into which the monastery is involved, its relics, artefacts, and when appropriate, the secondary monasteries over which it has control. All information is clickable and cross-referenced to the names, tables and information panels in the prosopography.

2. The main sources used are the following and a direct link has been provided for them when they are available on the Web:


  • U. Ludwig et al. eds, Der Memorial- und Liturgiecodex von San Salvatore/Santa Giulia in Brescia, MGH. Libri memoriales et necrologia nova ser., 4 (Hannover, 2000), web site  .
  • E. Barbieri, I. Rapisarda, G. Cossandi eds, Le carte del monastero di S. Giulia di Brescia I (759-1170), web site


  • J-M. Martin ed., Chronicon Sctae Sophiae (cod. Vat. Lat. 4939) (Rome, 2000)


  • R. Benericetti, Le carte ravennati del secolo decimo. IV: Archivi minori (Faenza, 2010).
  • R. Benericetti, Le carte ravennati del secolo undicesimo: Archivio del monastero di Sant’Andrea Maggiore V (aa.1000-1049) (Faenza, 2009).
  • R. Benericetti, Le carte ravennati del secolo undicesimo: Archivi minori.Monastero di Sant’Andrea Maggiore VI (aa. 1050-1098) (Faenza, 2010).


  • P. Egidi ed., Necrologi e libri affini della provincia romana (Roma, 1908), web site .
  • F. Martinelli, F., Primo trofeo della Croce eretta in Roma nella Via Lata …e chiese detti Santi Stefano, Ciriaco e Nicolo di Camigliano (Rome, 1655), pp. 57-71.
  • L. M. Hartmann ed., Ecclesiae S. Maria in Via Lata Tabularium, I (Vienna, 1895-1913).

3. Abbreviations and style:

(nun): unconfirmed but supposition based on parallel entry with that of attested nuns in the same necrology

The titles and functions are in English if obvious: eg king, doge, bishop, notary, and in Latin if specifically medieval or associated with a specific function: advocatus, rectrix

The definition of properties and contracts is in English if it one which has remained in current use: land, vineyard, lease, emphyteusis, investiture, but in Latin if specific to the area or to the medieval period: eg condome, sala pedepladana

The names of rulers are in English if they are in current use: eg Emperor Otto, Berengar of Friuli, Pope Gregory V, Theophylact.  The same rule applies to place names: eg Venice, Tuscany. The names of churches has been left in the original form if it has now disappeared, or in current Italian if extant.

Individual names have been anglicised when they are in common use eg John, Peter, Stephen, Martin, George, Constantine, Justinian, Guy, Hugh (but Ugo/Ugone has been kept); English spellings have been used instead of Latin/Italian ones eg Stephania, Joanna, Theodora, Christina, Bertha, Agatha rather than Stefania, Giovanna, Teodora, Cristina, Berta, Agata.

Spelling variations of most uncommon names have been standardized: the first entry in bold is the standardized form, the others are forms found in the sources.


Aso/Asa= Acio; Aczo; Azo; Azzo; Azone; Azzone; Atjus, Acza

Aio = Aione

Atto = Ato

Baruncius = Baruncus

Bonus = Bonius

Constantia = Constantie; Constancia

Formosa = Fermosa

Fosca = Fuscha; Fusca

Gerardus = Garardus; Girardus

Gisla = Gisella

Imelda = Imilda; Immila

Lavinia = Labinia

Lucia = LiuciaLiuta; Lutja

Marozza = Marocia; Maroza; Marozia


Some names are recorded in documents with a different initial: in this case, they are found under the first name as entered below:









Sovereigns and rulers are entered with the dates of their reigns or rule. When known, the dates of the nuns are those of their entry into the monastery, death, transactions, abbacy - or whichever of these is known. If none are known (in some cases in the Necrology of S. Ciriaco), the date according to the context is 11th century.

For the relatives of the oblate nuns of S. Salvatore (other than the emperors), the dates entered here pro tem are the same as those of their female relatives' entry into the monastery.