National strategies


AI 4 Belgium

Country: Belgium
Organisation: AI 4 Belgium & Ministers for Digital Agenda
Year: 2019
This document presents the initial work of the AI 4 Belgium Coalition, a group comprising academics, tech-firms, corporations and public institution. It identifies five priorities for the country, such as: set up a new learning deal, develop a responsible data strategy and support adoption of AI in the private sector.

National Strategies for Artificial Intelligence

Country: Denmark
Organisation: Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Industry, Business and Financial Affairs
Year: 2019
The document sets four objectives: to have a common ethical basis for AI; to support research and development of AI; to help businesses invest in (responsible) AI; to use AI in the public sector. It recommends specific initiatives in four focus areas: a responsible foundation for artificial intelligence; more and better data; strong competences and new knowledge; increased investment.

Spanish RDI strategy in Artificial Intelligence

Country: Spain
Organisation: Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities
Year: 2019
The strategy is the result of a group of AI experts and establishes six priorities: to achieve an organisational structure that allows the development and the assessment of AI; identifying strategic areas where to apply AI (e.g. public administration and education); transfer of knowledge; promoting cross-disciplinary and vocational training in AI. It also includes seven recommendations that seek to align normative, structural and organisational adaptations to the achievements made in Artificial Intelligence in the different public policies.

Nationell inriktning för artificiell intelligens

Country: Sweden
Organisation: Ministry of Enterprise and Innovation
Year: 2019
This document complements the Government’s digital strategy and identifies four key conditions to realise the potential of AI in Sweden: education and training; research; innovation and use; framework and infrastructure (e.g. standards and rules)

Artificial Intelligence: a strategic vision for Luxembourg

Country: Luxembourg
Organisation: Digital Luxembourg Innovative Initiative
Year: 2019
The report describes the Government’s commitment to a human-centric AI and put forward some proposals to implement that approach. Among those proposals, there are: becoming a living laboratory for AI; consolidating large European data lakes; promoting ethics and privacy regulation; boosting investments and strategic partnerships; and investing in AI projects that provide better public services

Eesti tehisintellekti kasutuselevõtu eksperdirühma aruanne Kratt Report

Country: Estonia
Organisation: Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications
Year: 2019
The document is written by a team of AI experts and outlines strategies to accelerate the application of AI in the private and public sectors. Suggested actions include open-source base components; guidelines on how to manage AI projects; and data governance workshops and data auditing. These strategies are aligned with the wider e-State and information society goals. The document concludes that there is no need for changes in the foundation of the legal system and there is no need for a unified AI law

AI Portugal 2030. Portuguese National Initiative on DIGI. An innovation and growth strategy to foster Artificial Intelligence in Portugal in the European context

Country: Portugal
Organisation: Portugal INCoDe.2030 Initiative
Year: 2019
The document outlines a number of national priorities to implement by 2030. For example, these include promoting a better society; fostering AI skills and digital minds for all; promoting new jobs and developing an economy of AI services; fostering Portugal as a living lab for experimentation of new developments. Also, it lists several specific areas where Portugal will make a specific effort to lead in Europe (e.g. Natural Language Processing; real-time decision making with AI; AI and sustainable energy systems...)

Malta Towards an AI Strategy. High-level Policy Document for Public Consultation

Country: Malta
Organisation: Malta.AI
Year: 2019
This document is a result of a task force comprising public and private sector representatives. The document describes Malta’s aspiration to become the ultimate Ai launchpad (“a place in which local and foreign companies, and entrepreneurs, can develop, prototype, test and scale AI”). The strategy identifies three main pillars (investment, start-ups and innovation; public sector adoption; and private sector adoption) and three strategic enablers: education and workforce; legal and ethical framework; ecosystem infrastructure.


Artificial Intelligence for Europe

Country: Europe
Organisation: EU Commission
Year: 2018
The document proposes an approach that places people at the centre of the development of AI (human-centric AI) and encourages the use of AI to help solve social challenges such as climate change crime-fighting.

Coordinated Plan on AI

Country: Europe
Organisation: EU Commission
Year: 2018
The plan builds upon a declaration of cooperation signed by all EU Member States and Norway in 2018. It outlines a series of objectives and actions agreed by Member States, Norway and Switzerland to increase investments and foster talent and trust. For example, the plan proposes to strengthen private-public partnership; to adapt learning and training programmes; to create European data spaces, and to develop ethics guidelines. The document provides also a framework for national AI strategies.

For a Meaningful Artificial Intelligence. Towards a French and European Strategy

Country: France
Organisation: AI 4 Humanity
Year: 2018
The report is the result of the “Villani mission” led by the mathematician and Member of Parliament Cédric Villani. It is built upon a previous report detailing the state of AI in France. The objective of the report is “to provide a meaning to AI revolution”. Key indications include building a data-focused economic policy; promoting agile and enabling research; AI for a more green economy and ethical AI (creation of an AI ethics committee).

Strategie Künstliche Intelligenz der Bundesregierung

Country: Germany
Organisation: Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and the Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.
Year: 2018
The strategy focuses on research, transfer, public dialogue, impact assessment, skills and data availability. It is based on a previous report outlining the key points for a Federal Government Strategy on Artificial Intelligence (available in English). Example of identified priorities include to transfer research findings and AI methods to business; to invest in the labour force and skillsets; to attract skilled workers; to make data available and usable; to revise the regulatory framework, and to engage in dialogue with society.

Artificial Intelligence at the service of citizens

Country: Italy
Organisation: The Agency for Digital Italy – AI Task Force
Year: 2018
This is a white paper that investigates the impact of AI in Public Administration (PA) to improve services to citizens and business. It identifies some critical challenges (ethical, technological, legal, etc), and puts forward a set of recommendations such as: promoting a national platform dedicated to the development of AI solutions; providing a plan to encourage PA investments in AI; establishing a Trans-disciplinary Centre on AI; define guidelines and processes based on a security-by-design approach.

AI Voor Nederland

Country: The Netherlands
Organisation: Innovation Centre for Artificial Intelligence
Year: 2018
The report contains a wide range of possible actions for governments and companies, such as: working on a world-class of national AI research centre; making better use of already available data; attract top AI talent and students.

Lithuanian Artificial Intelligence Strategy: A Vision of the Future

Country: Lithuania
Organisation: Ekonomikos Ir Inovaciju Ministerija / Kurk Lietuvai
Year: 2018
This document results from a series of meeting between a group of AI experts and the Ministry of Economy. As well as identifying the strength and the weakness of AI in Lithuania, it presents several recommendations organised in the form of mechanisms (e.g. actions, programs and initiatives). For example, the document recommends to establish AI ethics committee; to develop rules and guidelines for the development and use of AI; to support research to minimize bias in AI systems; encourage universities to develop courses on the ethical implications of technology; to create a dedicated artificial intelligence research-funding program.

Die Zukunft Österreichs mit Robotik und Künstlicher Intelligenz positiv gestalten

Country: Austria
Organisation: Austrian Council for Robotics and Artificial Intelligence
Year: 2018
This is a white paper delivered by an advisory body consisting of AI and robotics experts. It discusses current and future opportunities and challenges arising from the use of Robots and Autonomous Systems (RAS) and AI on a technological, economic, social and legal level. The document includes, among others, opinions and recommendations such as: creating conditions ensuring the exploitation of RAS and AI; establishing a legal framework that complies with EU legal requirement; developing measures to detect and mitigate possible dangers that could arise from RAS and AI

AI Sector Deal

Country: UK
Organisation: Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport
Year: 2018
This document is the first commitment from the government and industry to promote the adoption of AI in the UK. It builds upon Government’s Industrial and Digital Strategies and organises the plan of actions in five areas: ideas, people, infrastructure, the business environment and places. Examples of planned actions are: to invest up to £20m in the application of AI in the services sector; to develop a global Turing Fellowship programme to both attract and retain the best research talent in AI from around the world to the UK; to invest £406m in skills, with a focus on maths, digital, and technical education; to improve the digital infrastructure and provide legal certainty over the sharing and use of data in accordance with the UK’s strengthened Data Protection Bill.

AI in the UK: ready, willing and able?

Country: UK
Organisation: House of Lords
Year: 2018
The report presents the recommendations of a committee mandated by the House of Lord to consider the economic, ethical and social implications of AI. Examples of recommended include to establish voluntary mechanisms for informing the public when AI is being used for sensitive decisions; to incentivise new approaches to the auditing of datasets used in AI; to promote an a thorough education in AI-related subjects; a global summit in London by the end of 2019 to develop a common framework for the ethical development of AI. It also proposes five ethical principles for an AI code such as: AI should be developed for the common good; AI should operate n principles of intelligibility and fairness; AI should not be used to diminish the data right.

AI in the Nordic-Baltic region

Country: Nordic-Baltic region
Organisation: Government of Sweden & Nordic Council of Ministers
Year: 2018
This is a joint declaration signed by Nordic-Baltic ministers to promote the use of AI that better serves people. It proposes severals measures such as: improving the opportunities for skills development; strengthening access to data; developing ethical and transparent guidelines and standards; working for international standards to ensure interoperability, privacy, security, trust, usability and mobility.


Finland’s Age of Artificial Intelligence

Country: Finland
Organisation: Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment
Year: 2017
A network of experts has produced the document.. It outlines eight actions proposed by a Steering Group of the Artificial Intelligence Programme. Examples of proposed actions include to use data in all sectors; to speed up and to simplify AI adoption; ensure top-level expertise and attract top experts; and to establish a new cooperation model. It also defines some actions to make the work progress: extending the network of experts (in specific focus areas) and engaging citizens.

Last update: 23/12/2022