The main topics that will be addressed in the course of the Exercise Unit are:
Nomenclature of linear hydrocarbon compounds, structural isomers, nomenclature of branched substituents.
Nomenclature of cyclic and of unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Stereochemistry. Representation of enantiomers; the R/S configurations.
The C=C double bond, the E/Z nomenclature. Geometric isomerism of disubstituted cyclic hydrocarbons.
Reactions of alkenes e alkynes. Addition to the alkenes of weak acids H-A (acid catalysis). Stereoselectivity and regioselettivity. Relative stability of carbocations. Rule of Markovnikov. Anti-Markovnikov additions.
The Sn1 and Sn2 kinetics. The Sn2 mechanism, free enthalpy diagram, configuration inversion, effects of steric hindrance. Energy diagram of the Sn1 reaction: transition state and intermediates. The E2 and E1 mechanism.
The carbonyl group structure. Reactions of aldehydes and ketones: nucleophile additions. Mechanisms with charged and neutral nucleophiles. Reduction of aldehydes and ketones.
Organo-metallic reagents, reactivity and synthetic utility.
Carboxylic acid and their functional derivative reactions. Generalizations of the reaction mechanisms of the carboxylic acid functional derivatives; reactivity.
Electrophile aromatic substitution: effects of the substituents. Synthetic strategy for polysubstituted aromatic compounds.