Learning a foreign language: acquiring a new means of communication and information. To translate a foreign language is to share. This double functionality is all the more relevant as the source language and the target language are linguistically and culturally far apart, as is the case for Vietnamese and Italian. For example, in Vietnamese, the vision of the world is expressed through the "natural gender" while Italians will do so using the “grammatical gender” . It is therefore important, first of all, to grasp the degree of singularity of the target language in order to allow the components of the respective sociolinguistic environments to be related by identifying the constituent factors and thereby generate reflexive interrogation , which is a prerequisite for effective sharing through a series of "translating operations".
Moreover, experience has shown that the transition from one language to another, and, thus, the transposition from one cultural space to another, allows one to deepen the knowledge of one's own culture and to become a "transmitter of knowledge" despite a recent tendency towards cultural uniformity linked to the domination of the "world language" of the moment ...
In this vein, reading the "local" fictional literature (novels or short stories, the latter particularly appreciated by Vietnamese), first through translations and then in the original language, remains a precious means of apprehending a foreign society, beyond simple "acts of language".
Therefore, identifying linguistic specificities, understanding, communicating, enriching oneself culturally, without becoming diluted in a "standardized global identity", are the perspectives that can bring about the acquisition, in particular using translatology, of a foreign language by helping to build for oneself "a complex thought system "on the basis of shared universal values as advocated by the sociologist and philosopher Edgar Morin .
The didactic approach of the translatological approach can be declined in 3 successive stages, preceded by an introduction on the general characteristics of the language (monosyllabic, variotonal, invariable, semantic multisyllabism, influenced by foreign languages particularly Chinese):
1- identification of the components :
# morphological (phonemes, tonemes, syllables)
# semantic (morphemes / morpho-syllables, simple words, compound words and tool words); In contrast to what happens for fusional languages (Italian, French ...) where each element of the discourse is controlled by the genre, the singular or plural mark, the conjugation, the affixes even the declination,. .. each Vietnamese morpho-syllabe ie each written sign - is a meaningful entity in the image of Chinese characters, see for example : 中-> Trung (mezzo, middle, milieu); vedere per esempio :
# syntactical (position syntax , combinatorial constraints, propositions, sentences)
2- multicultural contextualization through comparative / contrastive approaches;
3- translation from a "source-oriented" (as opposed to target-oriented) perspective, according to J-R Ladmiral's theory .