Academic year
2023/2024 Syllabus of previous years
Official course title
Course code
CT0597 (AF:374011 AR:202820)
On campus classes
ECTS credits
Degree level
Bachelor's Degree Programme
Educational sector code
1st Semester
Course year
Go to Moodle page
This teaching course is part of the training activities characterizing the degree course in Science andTechnologies for Cultural Heritage, aimed at providing students with knowledge and understanding of the main methods and techniques of scientific investigation for the study and characterization of materials employed in the cultural heritage field, using the methods of treatment of experimental data and the current technical-scientific language in an appropriate manner.

The teaching "Analytical Chemistry for Cultural Heritage and Laboratory" is divided into two modules (defined as Module 1 and Module 2), both with theoretical lessons and laboratory exercises. The educational objectives of the course include:
1. To know and understand the general principles on which the classical and instrumental analytical methods most commonly used in the analysis, characterization and diagnostics of materials and objects in the field of cultural heritage are based.
2. To develop skills and competences to identify and apply the most common classical and instrumental analytical techniques to the investigation and characterization of artistic artifacts, as well as to interpret the collected experimental data.
3. To provide knowledge on the functioning of the instrumentation and on the modality of reading the responses obtained from the different types of instruments and their correlation with the theoretical aspects dealt with.
4. To develop critical sense that allows students to evaluate the potentials, advantages and limitations of the various analytical techniques studied.
5. To develop skills in the evaluation and reliability of an analytical data.

Specific educational goals of the Module 1 of the course are:
1. To provide the knowledge of theoretical principles of the main classical quantitative analytical techniques commonly used for the study and diagnostics of materials in the field of cultural heritage.
2. To develop and consolidate the ability to solve problems of: stoichiometric calculus, concentrations and dilutions, equilibria in solution, applied to a given analytical problem.
3. To introduce students to the practical application of the quantitative analytical methodologies studied from a theoretical point of view
4. To develop manual skills and familiarity in experimental laboratory work, both individually and in small work groups;
5. To develop skills in data processing and critical evaluation of the experimental results and of the potential of the techniques used, including the drafting of short written reports on the proposed experimental laboratory work.

The achievement of these objectives allows students to develop skills and competences to solve simple analytical-diagnostic questions and apply the most common classical and instrumental analytical techniques to the investigation and characterization of artistic artefacts, as well as to interpret the collected experimental data.
Expected learning outcomes for module 1:

1.Knowledge and understanding
A) To Know the fundamental principles of volumetric, potentiometric and conductimetric analytical methods, the chemical reactions and the laws they are based on.
B) To Know and understand the function and correct use of the volumetric and mass measurement equipments, as well as the elements that make up the instrumental equipment used to carry out the volumetric and electrochemical experiences.
C) To know and understand the types of experimental error and the figures of merit in analytical chemistry, the concept of calibration and the methods of quantification in instrumental analysis, the main procedures for the acquisition and processing of experimental data.
D) To know and respect the basic rules of behavior in the chemical laboratory as well as the safety standards and risk prevention in the laboratory

2. Ability to apply knowledge and understanding
A) Knowing how to use laws and concepts learned in the theoretical course, to appropriately apply the classical analytical techniques studied in solving an analytical problem.
B) Knowing how to collect experimental analytical data (alone and/or in group) and apply the theory of error and statistical analysis for their correct treatment and evaluation.
C) Ability to elaborate and evaluate the final experimental results in a consistent way, made explicit by writing a scientific report.
D) Ability to work experimentally in an autonomous way, respecting all the safety standards and risk prevention in the chemical laboratory.

3. Ability to judge
Compatibly with the degree of in-depth study of the subject reached during the teaching:
A) To compare the effectiveness of the various analytical techniques studied, choosing the most appropriate to apply to a specific diagnostic problem.
B) To know how to critically assess the consistency of the experimental results obtained.
C) Being able to recognize any errors through a critical analysis of the applied method.
D) Being able to evaluate the correct functioning of the used volumetric equipment and instrumentation.
E) To develop critical capacity on the danger of some classes of chemical compounds for human health and the environment.

4. Communication skills
A) Communicate the knowledge learned and the result of their application using an appropriate language, both in oral and written examination.
B) Interact with the teammates in a constructive and respectful way, developing the ability to work in a team and taking responsibility for own role in the team.

To achieve the educational objectives of: GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY AND LABORATORY - mod 1 and 2, MATHEMATICAL INSTITUTIONS WITH EXERCISES, PHYSICS. It is recommended (but not necessary) to have passed the exams of these teachings.
In relation to the training objectives and the expected learning outcomes, the teaching "Analytical Chemistry for Cultural Heritage and Laboratory - Module 1" is divided into two parts: Theory and Laboratory

1. General introduction to the course, description of the program, methods of examination, bibliography.
2. Introduction to analytical chemistry and its role in the field of cultural heritage; Classification of methods of analysis; Steps of a typical quantitative analysis. Calibration. References to some basic concepts: unit of measurement; calculation of concentrations.
3. Evaluation of experimental data: errors in analytical chemistry; accuracy and precision; application of statistics to data processing and evaluation; examples of calculation. Quantification methods in instrumental analysis. Sensitivity, limit of detection and quantification.
4. Recalls of chemistry of aqueous solutions: the chemical composition of aqueous solutions, acids and bases. The balanced chemical equation. Solving balancing problems.
5. Volumetric methods of analysis: general aspects of volumetric titrations, standard solutions, indicators, determination of end point, volumetric calculations. Titration curves.
6. Neutralization titrations: acid-base titrations, acid/base indicators, titration errors. Titration curves: strong acid- strong base; weak acid-strong base; weak base-strong acid, polyfunctional acids and bases. Applications: carbonate titration.
7. Titration with complex formation: complex formation reactions; titrations with EDTA. Applications: determination of Ca2 + and Mg2+ ions.
8. Precipitation titrations: titration curves. Argentometric titrations; revelation of the final point. Applications: determination of Cl- ions.
9. Introduction to electrochemical methods: electrochemical cells, electrode potentials, types of electrodes.
10. Potentiometry and Conductivity: Potentiometry: fundamental principles, instrumentation and applications; pH measurement; potentiometric titrations. Conductivity: fundamental principles, instrumentation and applications; conductivity measurement; conductometric titrations.

- VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS (classical quantitative analysis)
1. Use of technical and analytical balances. Use and calibration of the volumetric glassware.
2. Use of pHmeter and conductimeter; applications to pH and conductivity measurements in natural waters. Determination of pH of paper surfaces.
3. Base-acid titrations: weak acid - strong base with indicator; conductivity titration: determination of the concentration of a strong acid; pHmetrical titration: determination of the carbonate ion
4. Complexometric titrations: Volumetric determination of Ca2+ + Mg2+ with EDTA. Determination of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in a dolomite sample.
5. Precipitation titrations: Volumetric determination of chlorides: Fajans method. Determination of the chloride released by a brick in contact with an aqueous phase.

- Skoog D.A., West D.M., Holler F.J., Crough S.R., Fondamenti di Chimica Analitica, EdiSES, Napoli, III ed. (2015), op. II Ed.(2005).
- Skoog D.A., West D.M., Holler F.J., Fondamenti di Chimica Analitica, EdiSES, Napoli, 1998.
- Hage & Carr, Chimica Analitica e Analisi Quantitativa, Piccin, 2012
- Harris D.C., Chimica Analitica Quantitativa, 2 ed, Zanichelli, Bologna, 2005.

For the laboratory part, the teachers will provide a laboratory manual (named dispensa) with information necessary for the realization of each experience and of the corresponding report.

Integrative texts
- Campanella L., Casoli A., Colombini M.P., Marini Bettolo R., Matteini M. et al., Chimica per l'Arte, Zanichelli, Bologna, 2007
- Skoog D.A., Holler F.J., Crouch S.R., Chimica Analitica Strumentale, EdiSES, Napoli, 2009.
- Cozzi, Prearo, Ruaro , Analisi Chimica Strumentale, - Zanichelli , Bologna, 1997
The verification of learning of teaching activities related to the course is done by:

1. a written test for the assessment of the achievement of the objectives concerning the theoretical part; the test consists of a series of questions related to the theoretical aspects of the different analytical methods covered. The proposed questions are of different levels: understanding, application, analysis, synthesis and critical evaluation. The duration of the written test is 2 hours. During this test only the use of a scientific calculator is allowed, while the use of notes, books and electronic media is not permitted.
2. evaluation of laboratory activities: arithmetic mean of the two following components of the experimental activity:
- votes of reports concerning laboratory exercises (both module 1 and 2); for the evaluation of the laboratory part, it is required to carry out at least 80% of the scheduled exercises. Appropriate additional laboratory sessions are planned to allow for possible recoveries.
- individual laboratory test consisting of a series of questions and exercises specifically concerning the experiences performed in both modules of the laboratory, to verify above all the understanding of the experimental work carried out and the application of the analytical techniques used.

The overall evaluation of the course of “Analytical chemistry and laboratory” is calculated as the arithmetic average of the marks obtained in modules 1 and 2 and in the laboratory part.
Didactic methods Module 1

Theoretical part : The teaching will take place through lectures in classroom, in which the theoretical principles will be presented, with examples of applications and problem solving.

Laboratory: Students will work individually or in groups of 2 people. At the end of each experience, the students must submit a short report with the processing of experimental data and the discussion of the results obtained.

In the "moodle" platform of the University, all the teaching material provided will be present and downloadable: presentations projected in the classroom during lessons, laboratory manuals, models for the preparation of reports, in-depth material

Accessibility, Disability and Inclusion

Accommodation and support services for students with disabilities and students with specific learning impairments:
Ca’ Foscari abides by Italian Law (Law 17/1999; Law 170/2010) regarding supportservices and accommodation available to students with disabilities. This includes students with mobility, visual, hearing and other disabilities (Law 17/1999), and specific learning impairments (Law 170/2010). In the case of disability or impairment that requires accommodations (i.e., alternate testing, readers, note takers or interpreters) please contact the Disability and Accessibility Offices in Student Services:


This subject deals with topics related to the macro-area "Human capital, health, education" and contributes to the achievement of one or more goals of U. N. Agenda for Sustainable Development

Definitive programme.
Last update of the programme: 09/03/2023