HEINRICH Patrick

Qualifica Professore Associato
Telefono 041 234 9586
E-mail patrick.heinrich@unive.it
SSD LINGUE E LETTERATURE DEL GIAPPONE E DELLA COREA [L-OR/22]
Sito web www.unive.it/persone/patrick.heinrich (scheda personale)
Struttura Dipartimento di Studi sull'Asia e sull'Africa Mediterranea
Sito web struttura: https://www.unive.it/dsaam
Sede: Palazzo Vendramin
Research Institute Research Institute for International Studies
Research Institute Research Institute for Social Innovation

Current position

  • Associate Professor for Japanese Language and Linguistics (since 2014)  

Former affiliations

  • Associate Professor (2010-2013) / Professor Dokkyo University (2013-2014)
  • Assistant Professor Duisburg-Essen University (2002-2008)
  • Research Associate Düsseldorf University (1999-2000)

Part-time affiliations & visiting professorships 

  • Visiting professor: Duisburg-Essen University (2016); University Toulouse Jean-Jaurès (2013, 2016)
  • Part time lecturer: Hokkaido University (2016-present); University of Lapland (2015); Gakushuin University (2010-2013); Okinawa International University (2008, 2010)
  • Research associate: Okinawa University (2009-2012); University of the Ryukyus (2008-2010); Hosei University (2006-2012)
    Erasmus teaching staff exchange: University of Vienna (2019); University of Helsinki (2016)

Academic education・qualification

  • 2018 Abilitazione prima fascia (Italian Habilitation)
  • 2005 Habilitation Thesis, Japanese Studies (Duisburg-Essen University)
  • 2002 Dr. phil Japanese Studies (Duisburg University)
  • 1998 Master Linguistics and Japanese Studies (Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf)

Awards & scholarships

  • 2014 Honorary member Foundation for Endangered Languages
  • 2008 Award of the Japanese Association of Sociolinguistic Sciences
  • 2002 Award best PhD thesis of the year, Duisburg University
  • Various scholarships by JSPS, DAAD, DFG, Japan Foundation, Humboldt Foundation

Citations and impact Google Citations: 1090 / h-index 17 / i10-index 34  

Associate Editor

Editorial board

  • Contemporary Japan
  • Current Issues in Language Planning
  • International Quarterly of Asian Studies
  • Kotoba to shakai (Language and Society)
  • International Journal of the Sociology of Language (2010-2020)

Academic services (selection)

  • Coordinator PhD program on Asian and African Studies at Ca' Foscari University (since 2017)
  • Departmental Research Committee (since 2017),
  • Convenor 'Section Linguistics' at the European Association for Japanese Studies Conference (2017)
  • Scientific committee member: Conference on Asian Linguistic Anthropology International Conference on Revitalization of Indigenous and Minorized Languages (Barcelona 2017, Brazilia 2019, Perpignan 2022), Conference on Asian Linguistic Anthropology (Sarawak, Malaysia 2020), Third International Conference on Sociolinguistics (Prague 2020), Linguapax Asia (2012-2018), Ryukyuan Heritage Language Society (2010-2014)

Academic Presentations

2022

  • (18.03.2022) "'These dialects are language, too': Knowledge transmission about language diversity in Japan through the UNESCO Atlas of Endangered Languages". Strasburg: University of Strasbourg.
  • (29.01.2022) "Masiko Hidenori no ‘Ideorogii to shite no nihon’ o saikō suru" [Reflexions on Hidenori Masiko’s Japan as Ideology]. Tokyo: Tagengo shakai kenkyūkai.

2021

  • (27.08.2021) "L'esprit de celui qui parle: Wilhelm von Humboldt on Japanese". Ghent (Online symposium).
  • (16.08.-19.08.2021) "Sociolinguistics: Language and Wellbeing in Japan". Hokkaido University  (Online intensive course).
  • (2021.06.28) "Language ideology and cultural capital in Okinawan language textbooks". Zürich University of Applied Sciences (Online symposium). 
  • (2021.06.08) "New speakers and new-speakerism in the Ryukyus". Hong Kong University (Online symposium).
  • (2021.05.06) "Sinitic Writing in the Ryukyus". Shanghai Normal University (Online workshop).
  • (2021.04.20) "Ryukyuan language learning and transformational change". Kyushu University (Online seminar).

2020

  • (2020.11.14) "Is there a 'young generation' in Japan and if so, what sets them apart from others?". Kyoto: (Online symposium). 
  • (2020.09.03) "If you Can't Hold on: Language Obsolescence in Yonaguni and Reversing Language Shift Theory" (Conference on the Endangered Languages of East Asia). Venice: Ca'Foscari University of Venice.
  • (17.08.-20.08.2020) "Sociolinguistics: Language and Wellbeing in Japan". Hokkaido University (Online intensive course). 
  • (07.03.2020) "Yonaguni-ten <l ' isola> ni tsuite (Annual Meeting of the Ryukyuan Heritage Language Society). Nishihara: University of the Ryukyus. 
  • (07.02.2020) "Language standardization and de-standardization in Tokyo: Empirical findings and methodological challenges". Rome: La Sapienza University of Rome.


2019

  • (22.11.2019) "Language Endangerment Occurs in Borderlands: Cases from Japan, Korea and China". Olomouc: Palacký University Olomouc.
  • (14.11.2019) "Language and its Double" Turin: University of Turin.
  • (03.10.2019) "Cultural Expertise and Language". Oxford: Oxford University.
  • (05.08.-08.08.2019) "Issues in the Japanese Sociology of Language" (intensive course). Sapporo: Hokkaido University.
  • (15.05.2019) "Sprache und Gesellschaft im Modernen Tokyo". Vienna: University of Vienna. 
  • (13.05.-17.05.2019) "Current Trends in Japanese Sociolinguistics" (Erasmus teaching staff exchange). Vienna: University of Vienna. 
  • (11.04.2019) "Globalization Starts at Home: Japan's Transformation into a Multingual Society". Tokyo: Toyo University.
  • (08.03.2019) "Language Endangerment and Subjective Wellbeing in the Ryuyus". Venice: Ca' Foscari University 
  • (02.03.2019) "Yōroppa ni okeru nihongo kyōjuhō ni kansuru kōsatsu" [Reflections on Japanese Teaching Methods in Europe]. Duisburg: Duisburg-Essen University.
  • (01.03.2019) "Werufea ringuistikkusu no wakugumi ni okeru gengo mondai to kanri" [Language Problems and Management in a Welfare Linguistics Paradigm]. Duisburg: Duisburg-Essen University.
  • (21.02.2019) "Language Life in Post-Modern Tokyo". Venice: Ca' Foscari University.

  2018

  • (14.12.2018) "Language Life in Post-Modern Tokyo". Leiden: Leiden University.
  • (10.10.2018) "Language Maintenance and Revitalisation for Wellbeing: Development of New Models in Language Revitalisation and Preservation". Manila: Commission on the Fliipino Language.
  • (06.-09.08.2018) "Issues in the Japanese Sociology of Language" (intensive course). Sapporo: Hokkaido University.
  • (21.06.2018) "At Risk of Exclusion. Language Revitalization In the Japanese Ryukyu Islands". Duisburg: Duisburg-Essen University.
  • (14.06.2018) "Language Revitalization in Yonaguni". Venice: Ca' Foscari University.
  • (16.04.2018) "Language Standardization in the Chinese Character Cultural Sphere. China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam". Cambridge: Cambridge University.
  • (10.03.2018) "Japanese Language Education for Welfare. From Theory to Practice". Cambridge: British Association for Teaching Japanese.
  • (01.02.2018) "Protect, Project, Connect. Language Education for Welfare". Sapporo: Hokkaido University.
  • (31.01.2018) "Language Revitalization for Welfare. Ryukyuan and Ainu". Sapporo: Hokkaido University.
  • (30.01.2018) "Don't Leave your Language Alone". Sapporo: Hokkaido University.
  • (29.01.2018) "The Dark Side of Modernity: Language Endangerment in Japan". Sapporo: Hokkaido University.   

  2017

  • (11.12.2017) "After Language Standardization. Dialect Cosplay in Tokyo". Ningbo: University of Nottingham Campus, Ningbo, China. 
  • (22.09.2017) "How Happy Our Ancestors Must Have Been! Language Endangerment in Japan and Social Wellbeing". London: SOAS.
  • (31.08.2017) "Critical Content Based Instruction: Developing a Advanced Japanese Course on tabunka kyosei for Italian Master Students". Lisbon. EAJS.
  • (07.-10.08.2017) "Issues in the Japanese Sociology of Language" (intensive course). Sapporo: Hokkaido University.
  • (23.06.2017) "Ryukyuan Language Shift in a Welfare Linguistics Framework". Kanda University of International Studies. Makuhari: KUIS.
  • (14.05.2017) "Managing Language Problems in a Welfare Linguistics Framework". Princeton: Princeton University.
  • (09.05.2017) "Language as a Factor for Welfare". Venice: Ca' Foscari University. 
  • (27.04.2017) "Cool rules: Nouvelles présentations de soi même à travers la langue par les jeunes au Japon". Toulouse: Université Toulouse-Jean Jaurès. 
  • (04.04.2017) "With or Without Honorifics. Language Revitalization in the Ryukyus". Venice: Ca' Foscari University.
  • (18.03.2017) "Language and Identity in the Diaspora". Osaka: Kwansai Gakuin Daigaku.

  2016

  • (02.11.2016) "Japanese Language Education, Welfare and Motivation". Oxford: Oxford Brookes University.
  • (05.09.-09.09.2016)"Language Endangerment in Japan" (intensive course). Gothenburg: Universty of Gothenburg.
  • (10.08.2016) "Language Shift as an Index of Social Inequality - The Case of the Ryukyus". Sapporo: Hokkaido University.
  • (08.08.-12.08.2016)"Issues in the Japanese Sociology of Language" (intensive course). Sapporo: Hokkaido University.
  • (09.07.2016) "Language Education for Welfare - The Case of Japanese in Europe". Venice: Ca' Foscari University.
  • (27.06.2016) "Tokyo no gengo seikatsu" [Language Life in Tokyo]. Tokyo: Tokyo University.
  • (26.06.2016) "Borders, Orders, and Visions of Communality. The New Silk Road as an Ideology". Coimbra: Coimbra University.
  • (18.04-22.04.2016) "Language Endangerment Dynamics in Japan" (intensive course). Helsinki: University of Helsinki.
  • (17.03.2016) "La vie langagiere à Tokyo". Toulouse: University Jean-Jaures. 
  • (15.03.2016) "Ryukyuan in Japan. From Language to Dialect, and back again?" Leiden: Leiden University.

  2015

  • (27.11.2015) "The Kokugo Revolution and its Legacy Today". Venice: Ca' Foscari University.
  • (20.11.2015) "Discussion: Social Institutions in Transformation - Families, Care and Welfare". Torino: Collegio Carlo Alberto. 
  • (13.11.2015) "Language Socialisation and Dialect Guise (hōgen cosplay)". Venice: Ca' Foscari University.   
  • (29.10.2015) "What is Making Strangers 'Strange' in Modern Japan?". Florence: University of Florence. 
  • (28.07.2015) "Conflicting Ideologies on the Authenticity and Adaptability of Ryukyuan Languages". Antwerp: IPrA.
  • (19.06.2015) “Is 'Crossing' and 'Dialect Cosplay' one and the same thing and how comes we do not know?” Leiden: Leiden University.
  • (13.04.2015) “Sprache und Identität in Okinawa”. Wien: Universität Wien.

  2014

  • (11.10.2014) "Scaling the Linguistic Landscape in Naha (Okinawa)". Berlin: Japanisch-Deutsches Zentrum. 
  • (18.07.2014) “Shimakutuba - Adapting Ryukyuan Languages to the 21st Century”. Yokohama: World Congress of the International Sociological Association.
  • (17.05.2014) “The Role of Language Ideology in Ryukyuan Language Revitalization”. Chiba: IUAES.
  • (27.04.2014) “Writing, Standardization and Language Endangerment – The Cases of Okinawa and Sicily”. Tokyo: Joshibi University of Art and Design.
  • (16.03.2014) “Gengo ishiki, gengo nettowaaku to gengo shifuto no sōgo kankei”. [The Interrelation between Language Attitudes, Language Networks  and Language Shift ]. Nakijin: Kōminkan.
  • (14.02.2014) “Language Revival and Revitalizations – Insights from Ryukyu, Hawai‘i and Sicily”. Hilo: University of Hawai‘i Hilo Campus.
  • (13.02.2014) “Japanese Sociolinguistics – A Critical Review”. Hilo: University of Hawai‘i Hilo Campus.
  • (11.02.2014) “Language, Security and Freedom in the Ryukyu Islands”. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Manoa Campus.
  • (13.01.2014) “Language, Security and Freedom in the Ryukyu Islands”. Tokyo: German Institute of Japanese Studies.

2013

  • (13.12.2013) “The Role of Networks in Language Shift and Reversing Language Shift”. Tokyo: Gakushuin University.
  • (08.12.2013) “Language Norms and Writing in East Asia”. Tokyo: Joshibi University of Art and Design.
  • (22.11.2013) “Mission Impossible? Language Revitalization in the Ryukyus”. Chicago: American Anthropologist Association.
  • (15.09.2013) “Hōgen ronsō to gendai no gengo kiki” [The Dialect Debate and Language Endangerment Today]. Ginowan: Okinawa International University.
  • (05.09.-09.08.2013) “Ryūkyū shogo ni okeru gengo kiki” [Language Endangerment in the Ryukyus] (Intensive Course). Ginowan: Okinawa International University.
  • (17.05.2013) “The Difference between Language Revival and Revitalization. Implications for the Ryukyus”. Tokyo: Gakushuin University.
  • (27.04.2013) “Japan as Ideology”. Elizabethtown (Pennsylvania): Elizabethtown College.
  • (15.03.2013) “Le multilinguisme au Japon: passé et présent”. Toulouse: University Toulouse le Mirail.
  • (21.02.2013) “The Present State and Future Tasks of Ryukyuan Linguistics”. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Manoa Campus.

2012

  • (15.12.2012) “Ijin no kōchiku – gengo no yakuwari” [The Role of Language in the Construction of Strangers]. Saitama: Dokkyo University.
  • (01.12.2012) “Naze  hondo de gengo ga tōitsu sare, Ryūkyū de tayōka sareta no ka?” [Why did Language Unify on the Mainland but Diversity in the Ryukyus?]. Tokyo: Hosei University.
  • (24.11.2012) “Multicultural Japan? Japan, Southeast Asia and tabunka kyōsei”. Weingarten: Tagungshaus Weingarten.
  • (18.11.2012) “Framing New Language Ideologies in the Ryukyus”. San Francisco: San Francisco University.
  • (05.11.2012) “The Role of Language Ideology in Language Shift: Hawai‘i and Ryukyu”. Cape Town: University of Cape Town.
  • (03.11.2012) “Near-dialectization of Ryukyuan Abstand Languages”. Wien: Universität Wien.
  • (12.09.2012) “Japanese Sociolinguistics: Origins, Developments and Present Tasks”. Venice: Ca’ Foscari University.
  • (29.06.2012) “Sprachliche Transgression im Japanischen in Okinawa”. Bonn: Bonn University.
  • (20.05.2012) “Doitsu to Nihon ni okeru ijū to gengo no mondai” [Problems of Language and Migration in Germany and Japan]. Nishihara: University of the Ryukyus.
  • (30.03.2012) “Ryūkyū shogo fukkō no kanōsei” [Prospects of Ryukyuan Language Revitalization]. Tokyo: Waseda University.
  • (02.03.2012) “Types of Language Shift and its Implications for the Ryukyus”. Tokyo: National Institute of Japanese Language and Linguistics.

2011

  • (03.12.2011) “New Okinawan Literacies: The Difficulties of Writing and Reading Ryukyuan Languages”. Tokyo: International Christian University.
  • (02.12.2011) “Language as Cultural Heritage in Germany and Japan”. Saitama: Dokkyo University.
  • (30.07.2011) “Ryūkyū ōkoku ni okeru Ryūkyū shogo, Chūgokugo to Nihongo” [Ryukyuan, Chinese and Japanese in the Ryukyu Kingdom]. Tokyo: Tokyo University. 
  • (31.03.2011) “Language Revitalization Ideologies in the Ryukyus”. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Manoa Campus.
  • (04.03.2011) “Grammar Writing and Verbal Hygiene”. Tokyo: Kwansai Gakuin University Satellite Campus.
  • (28.01.2011) “Ryūkyū shogo no kikido to gengogaku no hannō”. [Ryukyuan Language Endangerment and the Response of Linguistics] Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Language.

2010

  • (19.12.2010) “Naze Okinawa mondai aru no ka” [Why is there Actually an Okinawan Problem?]. Saitama: Dokkyo University.
  • (27.11.2010) “Societal Prerequisites for the Maintenance of Linguistic Diversity”. Tokyo: Gakushuin University.
  • (08.11.2010) “Debates on the Status of the Ryukyuan Languages: Past and Present”. Hilo: University of Hawai‘i Hilo Campus.
  • (05.11.2010) “Language Ideology in Modern Japan”. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Manoa Campus.
  • (04.11.2010) “Language Documentation in Yonaguni”. Hawai‘i: Hawai‘i United Okinawa Association.
  • (05.09.2010) “Ryūkyū shogo, nihon shuwa wa kiki gengo de aru”. [The Ryukyuan Languages and Japanese Sign Languages are Endangered Languages]. Osaka: Osaka University.
  • (28.03.2010) “Gengo taiyōsei o shiji suru gengo seisaku” [Language Planning Supportive of Linguistic Diversity]. Miyazaki: Miyazaki University.
  • (13.03.2010) (with Yuko Sugita) “Kiki gengo kiroku hozon to gengo fukkō no tōgō e mukete” [Towards an Integration of Language Documentation and Language Revitalization]. Tokyo: Keio University.
  • (05.03.2010) “Yonagunigo no gengo kikido to sonzokusei” [Yonaguni Language Endangerment and Language Vitality]. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.

2009

  • (13.12.2009) “Language Vitality and Community”. Tokyo: Tokyo University.
  • (12.09.2009) “Shimakutuba to keizai”. [Local Language and Economy]. Urasoe: Harmony Hall.
  • (10.07.2009) “It's ‘iin’ not ‘ihn’ – Verbal Hygiene in Okinawa”. Melbourne: Monash University.
  • (06.06.2009) “Ryūkyū gengo seisaku to kore kara no kadai” [History and Future tasks of a Ryukyuan Language Policy]. Tokyo: Joshibi University of Art and Design. 
  • (20.02.2009) “Gengo kiroku hozon ni tsuite” [On Lexical Documentation]. Okinawa: University of the Ryukyus.
  • (13.02.2009) (with Fija Byron) “Iimikku oyobi iitikku no shiten kara mita Ryūkyū shogengo” [The Ryukyuan Languages Seen from Emic and Etic Perspectives]. Nishihara: University of the Ryukyus]

2008

  • (21.12.2008) “Genzai ni okeru Yaeyama to Yonaguni no gengo jijō” [The Current Linguistic Situation on Yaeyama and Yonaguni]. Okinawa: Okinawa Prefectural University of Arts.
  • (29.11.2008) “Gengo fukkō ni kan suru riron” [Theory on Language Revitalization]. Nishihara: University of the Ryukyus.
  • (12.10.2008) “Ryūkyū shotō ni okeru gengo fukkō no tenbō” [Outlook on Ongoing Efforts of Language Revitalization in the Ryukyu Islands]. Sapporo: Hokkaido Gakuen University.
  • (27.09.2008) “Ryūkyū gengo-shi ni rekishi o kuwaeru” [Adding History to Ryukyuan Language Histiory]. Tokyo: Hosei University.
  • (23.08.2008) “Chiiki gengo ga naze hitoyō de aru ka – Yonaguni o chūshin ni” [Why Local Languages Matter: Focus on Yonaguni]. Okinawa: Okinawa Prefectural Museum.
  • (08.03.2008) “Ryūkyū ni okeru ‘kotoba’ to ‘shisō no kyōdōtai’ no hensei” [Regimentation of ‘Languages’ and ‘Imagined Society’ in the Ryukyu Islands]. Taichung: Tunghai University.
  • (21.02.2008) “La modernisation linguistique au Japon et ses conséquences pour l’Okinawa”. Toulouse: University Toulouse le Mirail.

2007

  • (07.11.2007) “Sprach- und Identitätsdiskurse in den Ryukyuinseln”. Bochum: Universität Bochum.
  • (28.06.2007) “Language Revitalization in Absence of a Language Policy – the Case of the Ryukyu Islands”. Toluca: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México.
  • (14.06.2007) “Sprachenkrisen und Sprachtod”. Essen: Kennedyplatz.
  • (26.04.2007) “Fremdsprachdidaktik bedrohter Sprachen – das Beispiel Okinawa”. Bonn: Universität Bonn.
  • (10.04.2007) “Japanese as Foreign Language in Europe”. Chiba: Kanda University of International Studies.
  • (22.02.2007) “Language Endangerment in the Ryukyu Islands. Where Exactly is the Threat?” Mülheim: Katholische Akademie Wolfsburg.

2006

  • (22.12.2006) “Sauvegarde et revitalisation des langues en danger de l´archipel des Ryûkyû”. Paris: CNRS, campus Michel-Ange.
  • (14.09.2006) “All that you Fashion – the Future of The Ryukyuan Languages”. Venice: Ca’ Foscari University.
  • (05.09.2006) “Language Choices in the Ryukyu Islands”. Braga: Universidade do Minho.
  • (07.07.2006) “Return Okinawa – Daiku Tetsuhiro und die Hegemonie des Protests in Okinawa”. Mülheim: Katholische Akademie Wolfsburg.
  • (02.05.2006) “Die Modernisierung der japanischen Sprache. Deutsche Sprachreform als Vorbild für die Neuerungen der Meiji-Zeit”. Halle: Martin Luther Universität.
  • (24.03.2006) “Teaching Endangered Languages – the Case of Okinawan”. Duisburg: Universität Duisburg-Essen.
  • (20.03.2006) “Language Endangerment and Language Attitudes in Okinawa and Miyako”. Nishihara: University of the Ryukyus.
  • (02.02.2006) “So What Exactly Have we Learned? Constrains on Japanese-Ryukyuan Genealogy Studies”. Bonn: Universität Bonn.
  • (17.01.2006) “Interkulturelle Kommunikation zwischen Konstruktion und Kompetenz”. Düsseldorf: Wirtschaftsclub.

2005

  • (18.11.2005) “Reversing Language Shift in Okinawa Island”. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University.
  • (13.09.2005) “Debate on English as Second Official Language in Japan”. Tokyo: Gakushuin University.
  • (07.05.2005) (mit Hans Martin Krämer) “Enfant terrible der japanischen Geschichtswissenschaft – Oguma Eiji und die Sicht der japanischen Geschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts”. Tübingen: Universität Tübingen.
  • (27.04.2005) “Sprachwechsel in den Ryukyu Inseln”. Bochum: Universität Bochum.
  • (09.02.2005) “Progressive Erasure and Reversing Language Shift Activities in Ryukuyan”. Kagoshima: Kagoshima University.

2004

  • (10.02.2004) “Nihon gengogaku no bunkiten” [Turning Points in the History of Japanese Linguistics]. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
  • (28.09.2004) “Language Shift in Ryukyuan Vernacular Languages”. Kobe: St. Cathryn’s College Kobe.
  • (05.05.2004) “Advance Okinawa – Start with the Language: Debating the Future of Ryukyuan in 1940/41”. Valencia: Valencia University.
  • (02.04.2004) “How Global Can Modern Be? Language Ideology in JFL Textbooks”. Duisburg: Universität Duisburg-Essen.
  • (10.03.2004) “Gengo no torikae no ideorogii to Okinawa aidentitii” [The Role of Ideology in Language Shift and Okinawa’s Identity]. Tokyo: Hosei University.

2003

  • (15.07.2003) “'What Kind of Enlightenment Can Be Based on Inferior Language? A Language Ideological Debate in 19th Century Japan”. Toronto: Toronto University.

2002

  • (29.09.2002) “Sprachplanung und Sprachwandel in der Meiji-Zeit”. Bonn: Universität Bonn.
  • (19.09.2002) “The Reception of Western Linguistics in Modern Japan”. Oxford: Oxford University.

2000

  • (26.01.2000) “Historisch-vergleichende Linguistik und die Frage nach der Herkunft der Japaner”. Tokyo: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Natur- und Völkerkunde Ostasiens.